Human Relationships in Charles’s Dickens’ Oliver Twist

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Human Relationships in Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist

By – Shantikumar Sharma & Shimreingam, Vol.III Issue-XXIV January 2017

Introduction to the Authors:

K. Shantikumar Sharma is a research scholar, Dept. of English, Himalyan University, Arunachal Pradesh. The co-author, H. Shimreingam is assistant professor in the English department at Pettigrew College, under Manipur University.




Charles Dickens, the top novelist of the Victorian Age created human relationships and took keen interest in portraying the life of London city and also its pleasure in his novels. Various kinds of relationships i.e. the relationship between lovers, relationship between Master and servant, the relationship between caretaker and boarders, relationship between friends, etc. are dealt with in the novel. He himself had the experiences of life of the London streets for which he was regarded as the first genuine story teller of London life. He not only came up precisely at the right time in the history of English novel on the literary side but also on the other social issues. In his novels he brought about all classes of people living in different social strata which London city had during the reign of Queen Victoria and relationships between individuals. The novelist tactfully sketched all sections of society including women and children who struggled for existence and survival for fittest in the London society. And he never tries to modify the facts to go well with the existing standards of society. The paper talks about Dickens’ human relationships and see how he keeps the relationships among the characters which might have existed in the Victorian society.   

Key words: Charles Dickens, Victorian Age, London streets, portrayal, human relationship, struggle, survival for fittest.



Charles Dickens was born on 7 February 1812. His mother taught him privately. The novels which he obtained from his father includes: Roderick Random, Humphry Clinker, Tom Jones, The Vicar of Wakefield, Don Quixote, Robinson Crusoe, etc. When the family faced with financial crunch, a friend of John Dickens offered his son, Charles Dickens work in a blacking business at Hungerford Stairs where Charles started work at the age of twelve, labeling bottles for six shillings a week. There he suffered unbearable mental torture for the unskilled work of washing and labeling blacking bottles. When John Dickens was taken to the Marshalsea Debtor’s Prison for debt, Charles Dickens spent his Sundays with his father in the prison and on other days at the warehouse as usual. After three months of imprisonment, his Charles’s father was released on receipt of a bequest from his mother, who died leaving an amount of four hundred and fifty pounds for him. Some weeks later, John Dickens withdrew Charles from his work and sent him to school. Again at age fifteen, Charles Dickens began to work in the office of a firm of Gray’s Inn attorneys. These painful experiences of life form background for the creation of his many children characters. Meanwhile he taught himself shorthand and started working as a free lance reporter in the court of Doctors’ Commons.


Charles Dickens began his writing career with Sketches by Boz. He started publishing his works in various periodicals which he subsequently republished as Sketches of Boz, Illustrative of Every Day Life and Every-Day People (1836-37). The Pickwick Papers were published in 1836-37. He married Catharine in April 1836. Then, Charles Dickens published Oliver Twist (1837-38) followed by Nicholas Nickleby, (1841). Dickens and his wife visited America in 1842. His ‘American Notes’ (1842) and Martin Chuzzlewit (1843-44) caused much uproar in America. With the publication of the series of Christmas books brought him immense popularity. A Christmas Carol, appeared for the first time in 1843. Dombey and Son (1844-46) and David Copperfield (1849-50) were serious in theme and more carefully planned than his other early works. He published Bleak House in 1853 followed by Hard Times (1854), Little Dorrit (1857), A Tale of Two Cities (1859), Great Expectations (1860-61), and Our Mutual Friend (1864-65). In 1858, he was separated from his wife, Catharine. Charles Dickens died on 9 June 1870 before completing his last novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood.


Charles Dickens’s Oliver Twist after Pickwick papers was published in 1937. It is the life story of Oliver Twist who was born in a workhouse and became orphan just after his birth. G.K. Chesterton opines:

“There is indeed a sort of romance in “Oliver Twist,” but it is such an uncommonly bad one that it can hardly be regarded as greatly interrupting the previous process; and if the reader chooses to pay very little attention to it, he cannot pay less attention to it than the author did. But in fact the case lies far deeper. “Oliver Twist” is so much apart from the ordinary tract of Dickens, it is so gloomy, it is so much all in one atmosphere, and it exhibits so much contrast between the unhappy passages which are good and the happy passages which are atrocious, that it can best be considered as an exception or a solitary excursus in his work.” (OT, 2007:VII)

The story revolves round the main character of Oliver Twist with the series of incidents in his life as an orphan. He had spent nine years of his early life under the care of an elderly woman Mrs. Mann who was expert in misappropriating money which she received for looking after the paupers and orphans from the concerned parish. “Oliver’s story begins and the moment of his becoming potentially human occurs when he becomes instinctively aware that it is intolerable to him. Oliver’s experience of solitude is not posited upon a prior experience of its opposite.” (J.Hillis Miller, 1970:37)

The story passes through a criminal world and ending with the happy note of being left into the hands of a well-to-do wealthy middle class family. J.Hillis Miller mentions about the relationships of thieves relation:  “The true relation of the thieves to one another is given not by the image of a mutually loyal group crouching around their single candle in an underground room, but by the recurrent motif of spying. Fagin himself spies on Oliver and one other members of his gang; Nancy herself is spied on by Fagin’s representative. Her betrayal of the thieves is thus discovered and her death brought about. And Oliver is spied on by Fagin and Monks as he dwells in what he assumes to be the total security of Mrs. Maylie’s country home.” (J. Hillis Miller, 1970:50)

In this novel, various kinds of relationships i.e. the relationship between lovers, relationship between Master and servant, the relationship between caretaker and boarders, relationship between two friends, etc. are dealt with. “That the heroes are so persistently wronged must qualify our interpretation of Dickens as a novelist of guilt. As early as Oliver Twist his heroes experience dramatic feelings of guilt. Yet in so far as their feelings are consciously portrayed by Dickens, it is to expel them. Charges of guilt, and accompanying anxieties, are leveled against heroes so that their innocence can be proved. This is manifestly so in the case of a child like Oliver.” (Alexander Welsh, 1971:107)

The relationship between Oliver and Mrs. Mann is very important in the story for he was brought up in an orphan home under the care of Mrs. Mann. Mrs. Mann was an elderly woman who would be paid the expenses of Oliver’s nourishment by Parish authority for Oliver became an orphan as his mother died very soon after giving birth to him. His mother was an unmarried woman so her child would be called an illegitimate son and a bastard in this world. The elderly lady, Mrs. Mann was not full of milk, for human sympathy as she was too greedy she would spend the minimum money for Oliver’s welfare. Even though the Parish authorities offered enough money to rear up the child, Mrs. Mann did not use that money for the nourishment of the child, Oliver, she was inhuman and corrupted. Whenever Mr. Bumble comes to visit her, she would try to please him although she had the least interest for the welfare of the pauper and orphans of her charitable establishment. Though the relationship between Oliver and this lady was not good enough and not motherly treatment of baby, she had to bring up the children under her care. Sometimes she would beat the children and lock them in a coal-cellar for pressuring to hungry. As she always tries to misappropriate money meant for the children, children cannot get enough food to fill their bellies. When Mr. Bumble visits her, she locked Oliver in a coal-cellar:

“It was his ninth birthday; and he was keeping it in a coal-cellar with a select party of two other young gentlemen, who, after participating with him in a sound thrashing, had been locked up for atrociously presuming to be hungry, when Mrs. Mann, the good lady of the house, was unexpectedly startled by the apparition of Mr. Bumble, the beadle, striving to undo the wicket of the garden gate.” (OT, 2007:29)

The visit of Mr. Bumble was also a cruel and stone-hearted fellow careless of the welfare of paupers and orphans. He, the beadle of the parish, came to the workhouse after nine years of Oliver’s birth. Nine years after the birth of Oliver Twist, he had to move back again to the workhouse where he was given birth. It was an order from the parish authorities to take Oliver back to the workhouse as it was his birth place. Mr. Bumble, a beadle never felt loving the child. Oliver Twist was treated like one who can be sold as slave even though the parish authorities think that the child should be empowered so that he could earn something for his livelihood. There in the workhouse where he started picking oakum (a kind of labour assigned to the prisoner or orphans) also faced many problems between the children and care taker for not given enough food to the children who work there, Oliver was agitated against such a rule:

“He rose from the table, and advancing to the master, basin and spoon in hand, said, somewhat alarmed at his own temerity: “Please, sir I want some more.” (OT, 2007:79)


As the consequences of this act, Oliver was to be taken away by anybody, putting up a notice on the gate of the workhouse to offer a reward of five pounds to anybody who would take Oliver Twist away with him. Oliver was kept in a solitary confinement as a punishment for asking more food at the workhouse.

There is another relation between Oliver and Mr. Sowerberry i.e. between master and servant. At the house of Mr. and Mrs. Sowerberry, Charlotte, a dirty girl, gave Oliver some bits of food and tea for breakfast near the fire in the kitchen and told him to ear in the corner. Mr. Sowerberry thought that Oliver would be the most suitable person for an apprentice. Oliver proved more useful to his Master, Sowerberry in his trade, and Mr. Sowerberry soon began to favour Oliver Twist. Oliver soon became the favourite of his master which arouse the jealousy of others in the workhouse. One day when Noah speaks about Oliver’s mother in derogatory manner Oliver was out of control and caught hold of his (Noah’s) throat and gave him a violent thrash thereby Noah fell on the ground. Oliver was given a severe punishment by beaten up very badly by Mr. Sowerberry and his clothes were already torn and his face bruised and scratched.

When Mr. Sowerberry enquired about their quarrel, Oliver explained that Noah abused his mother but Mr. Sowerberry favoured Noah now and said that Noah was right in his statements regarding Oliver’s mother which Oliver protested it was not true. This brought tears into the eyes of Mrs. Sowerberry but Mr. Sowerberry started beating the boy to satisfy himself. After the incident, Oliver remained silent for long time, shedding tears the whole night in a kneeling posture. He had resolved to slip away from Mr. Sowerberry’s place and start walking towards the workplace of Mrs. Mann where he had spent nine years. On arriving there, he saw Dick, a fellow, working in the garden. They knew each other during Oliver’s stay in that place. Oliver told him that he was beaten up severely by Mr. Sowerberry which resulting him leaving the place. Dick said that his (Dick’s) death was very close to him because he was suffering from some incurable diseases. Then he asked Oliver to kiss him and Oliver did that. Dick bade good bye and blessed him. The blessing from his friend was the first that Oliver had ever heard invoked upon his head. This meeting of two friends was emotional one. Then, Oliver started his journey towards London yet without knowing where he was going.

After having walked for about five mile Oliver sat down by the side of a milestone, and he learnt from the milestone that London was about 70 miles away. He had often heard London was a very big city and full of opportunities. He thought that if he had reached there Mr. Bumble would not be able to catch hold of him. Thus he got up and preceded his journey towards London. He ate his inadequate crust of bread to appease his hunger. He had a single penny in his pocket.

On the seventh morning after leaving Mr. Sowerberry’s shop, he reached a small town called Barnet, there he was seen by a boy who was of his own age and the boy asked Oliver of his problem. He said that he was very hungry and tired because he had been walking for seven days. The other boy named Jack Dawkins helped him with food, drinks etc. he also promised him to take him to London and provide him with both food and lodging. Jack Dawkins said that his friends called him “the Artful Dodger” or only the Doger.” They arrived London very soon as London was not very far from the town Barnet. Oliver was taken to a very dirty locality; the street was narrow, full of mud, fowl and filth. Jack Dawkins knocked at the door of an old man whose name was Fagin. Jack introduced Oliver that he (Fagin) was his friend. Fagin warmly greeted Oliver with considerable smile. There were few other boys also sitting around a table smoking pipes and drinking liquor. Fagin said Oliver that they were very pleased to see him.  It was a good human nature till then that the other boy, Dodger helped Oliver where he was helpless in a strange place.

The relationship between these two boys is quite natural that the boy knew that there was another boy of his age so tired of 20 miles non-stop walk and no food to eat all along. We may remember, during his journey to London before he was found by a another boy but poor Oliver could not even beg for food because there was a large painted board fixed up, warning all persons who begged within the district would be sent to jail. He therefore, would leave the place with possible expedition. He was rescued by a kind fellow (turnpike man) and a benevolent old woman by providing him some bread and cheese. Had not for this kind old woman Oliver would have died on the way:

“But the turnpike man gave him a meal of bread and cheese; and the old lady, who had a shipwrecked grandson wandering barefoot in some distant part of the earth, took pity upon the poor orphan and gave him what little she could afford – and more – with such kind and gentle words, and such tears of sympathy and compassion, that they sank deeper into Oliver’s soul than all the sufferings he had ever undergone.” (OT, 2007:82)

Naturally all the elders have pity on small ones whether they are their children or not. Here we find such kind of relationship among people. In another case, after he was under the care of Fagin who trained children for pick-pocket and other crimes, Oliver was caught by the police with the charge of pick pocket, and he was sentenced three months’ imprisonment with hard labour. But he was rescued by the owner of Book-stall where the incident had taken place. The owner of the book-stall was the eye-witness of the whole episode and he discharged the boy, then the judgment was withdrawn. Even though the two (Oliver and the Owner of book-stall) were no relations between them, he wanted to save the boy because he knew that the boy was innocent. Mr. Brownlow took Oliver to his residence located in a quiet street near Pentoville, where he was nursed by Mrs. Bedwin. When he regained his consciousness, he asked where he was. Oliver was confined to bed for many days because he was suffering from fever. Mrs. Bedwin took much pain in attending upon him. Subsequently, after his recovery, he saw a portrait of a lady hanging upon the wall. He asked very curiously who the portrait –lady was. Simply Mrs. & Mr. Bedwin said that it was drawn by an artist, thus he could not know about the painted lady.

“Are you fond of pictures dear?” inquired the old lady, seeing that Oliver had fixed his eyes, most intently, on a portrait which hung against the wall, just opposite his chair.“I don’t quite know, ma’am,” said Oliver,…………… it’s a deal too honest. A deal,” said the old lady, laughing very heartily at her own acuteness.” (OT, 2007:114)

On the other hand, Mr. Brownlow was still thinking about the face of the portrait-lady that resembled to Oliver’s face. He told Mrs. Bedwin about this similarity. He found Oliver’s face the photocopy of the face of painted lady whose portrait was hanging upon the wall. All of the features were alike, even expression of their faces were also the same. Oliver had now regained from his illness, but he was still very weak. However, his curiosity to recognize the lady of the portrait was not satisfied. Everyone around him was kind-hearted and gentle. Oliver told him a detailed story of his past with tears and sorrow. But Mr. Grimwig, a friend of Mr. Brownlow remarked Oliver non-trustworthy. A servant from a book-stall came at a very significant moment which gives the opportunity to the old gentleman to test Oliver’s honesty. So Oliver was sent with few books and five-pound note to be given to the book-stall-keeper and Oliver had to bring back ten shillings from the book-stall.

In the meantime Nancy, a member of criminal children at the den of Fagin, was given a duty to catch/find Oliver and bring back to his former place where the criminals, Fagin and William Sikes live. He fell into the hand of Fagin’s group again. Nancy found him and embraced him with saying “Oh my brother” (OT, 2007:125) pretending to be her real brother. Oliver protested but in vain. So he could not return to the Old gentleman’s house. That led him again a non-trustworthy person to those old gentlemen. Mr. Brownlow and Mr. Grimwig were also waiting for Oliver but all was useless. “Charles Dickens took the name of his only friend from his boyhood, Bob Fagin, for Oliver Twist’s villain.” (Harold Bloom, 2003:85)

The relationship between Tom Chitling and Betsy is also seen in the further investigation. Tom Chitling was a boy who is also a member of gang group and he had also been captured by the police and been sentenced to imprisonment with hard labour for two days. He acted upon any instruction given by Betsy whom he loves. They (all the boys; Dodger, Bates, and Tim) played some game of cards while they are in the Fagin’s den. Tom expressed his love for Betsy to his friends.

The relationship between grown up boys and girls are natural, may be as true friendship or life partners but in the novel, it is found that there is relationship between boys and girls. There are some other characters found to be having good relationships between man and woman such as; Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Corney where Mrs. Corney had been living as widow. She also loved Mr. Bumble and later they got married. Mrs. Corney is also one of the most important characters who know the secret story of Oliver’s mother. She was narrated by a nurse called Old Sally when she was dying. The secrets had been kept for many years she was the only sole attendant of Oliver’s mother when she gave birth to Oliver Twist. Oliver’s mother was died after Oliver had been given birth. The nurse (Old Sally) had robbed the gold ticket from the neck of Oliver Twist’s mother.

On the other hand, we find a relationship between Oliver and Nancy who always wanted to help Oliver even if she performed accordingly the instruction given by her masters. She also involved catching hold of Oliver whenever Oliver escaped from the group of criminals; it was not her own will but her master’s instruction that she depended on for her livelihood. But she has a soft corner for Oliver in her heart and has efforts to save Oliver too whenever there is a chance to escape or save him. She wanted to help Oliver at any cost. The two were brought up in the same den to involve crimes of robbery and pick pocketing. But Oliver tried many times to escape from the group but sometimes he could, sometimes could not because of his fortune. Sometimes Nancy helped him when she did not get any instruction. In the novel, we find some other relationship between Noah and Charlott, a love making scene. They both are the groups of children who have been working in workhouse controlled by Mr. Bumble. Oliver also was once amongst this group. Frequently he was beaten up by the elders.

The relation between Noah and Charlotte is also a fine relationship where there such love affairs lie among the adolescents.  When Oliver was wounded with bullet in a failed attempt to burgle a house which belonged to a rich lady, he was left into a ditch in the state of unconsciousness. Oliver after regained his consciousness, he roamed around for a shelter and arrived at the door of that house which they tried to burgle. He was treated with care by the two ladies by providing to attend upon him of Doctor named Dr. Losberne. The young lady named Rose was a model of idealized womanhood. She was very tender-hearted and full of human values and old Lady Mrs. Maylie Rose was also kind and noble- nature. Rose was at pain to see Oliver who seemed to her very innocent. Oliver stirred and gave a smile in sleep as felt her pity and affection. So, Oliver was saved by the ladies and the Doctor by telling a lie to the policemen came for investigation for attempting robbery.

The younger lady glided softly past and, seating herself in a chair by the bedside, gathered Oliver’s hair from his face. As she stooped over him, her tears fell upon his forehead. The boy stirred, and smiled in his sleep, as though these marks of pity and compassion had awakened some pleasant dream of a love and affection he had never known.” (OT, 2007:263)

Oliver’s relation with the ladies is very important for he thinks he will be saved from those criminals’ world. Thus he remained in the house, inwardly blessing these benefactors who were like angels for him. Harry’s, Mrs. Maylie’s (old lady) son visit his mother felt both excessive delight to see each other. Mother and son’s relation is seen in the novel. They were apart for a long time but in the house, the old lady resides with both Oliver and Rose together. “Yet it cannot be said that married love is celebrated very directly in Oliver Twist. The main affective relation with Rose with Oliver’s rather than Harry Maylie’s. She turns out to be Oliver’s aunt in actuality and his ‘sister’ by preference.” (Alexander Welsh, 1971:150)

In the mean time, Rose was suffering from fever when Harry came to visit his mother. Harry became disturbed to learn that Rose had fallen greatly ill but felt relieved that she was all right now. Harry told his mother his love for Rose and had resolved to marry her. But his mother told him to think deeply before taking any decision. Though Rose loves Harry, she cannot accept his proposal of marriage for Rose was brought up in the same house and there were some suspicious circumstances of Rose’s birth too. Harry met Rose one fine morning and told her boldly that he was not at all curious or interested in listening to the rumours circulating around about Rose’s suspicious birth. He expressed that he had been in love with her for a long time and desired to the united with her. She too was in love with him, and would accept his proposal. However, Harry’s proposal gave her many inner crises: first, she had to no money for dowry, there was a stigma attached to her name, if she were to marry Harry, his friends would take to be a social climber- marrying a rich man to be a lady and finally, the stain upon her birth could not be removed. The novelist narrates:

“In a word,” said the young lady, turning away as her temporary firmness foresook her, “there is a stain upon my name which the world visits on innocent heads. ……… “If I had been less – less fortunate, the world would call it – if some obscure and peaceful life had been my destiny – if I had been poor, sick, helpless – would you have turned from me then? Or has my probable advancement to riches and honour given this scruple birth?” “Do not press me to reply,” answered Rose. “The question does not arise, and never will. It is unfair, almost unkind, to urge it.” (OT, 2007:315)

Then, Rose held forth her hand to Harry to shake hand and leave him. Harry said that he would speak to Rose once again for the proposal for the last time. But Rose replied that it would be useless. Then after, Rose extended her hand to Harry but caught her hand to his bosom and kissed her beautiful forehead and left the room.

The benefactors of Oliver prove his kin. Mrs. Maylie (old Lady) is his mother’s real aunt, Mr. Brownlow is the best friend of Oliver’s late father Mr. Edwin Leeford, and Rose Maylie is his mother’s sister. These facts were forcefully disclosed by Mr. Brownlow from the mouth of Monks (Edward Leeford). Rose ultimately agreed to marry Harry Maylie after Harry told her that he was now very acquainted with all the particulars about her birth and again proposed her for marriage. For a moment, Rose did accept his proposal because she did not want to defame him in the eyes of his (Harry’s) friends because she had no dowry to give. Now Rose ultimately had no objection in marrying Harry.

In conclusion, we can say that Charles Dickens has very delicately portrayed the various aspects of human relationships in the novel Oliver Twist. In Oliver Twist, Dickens discusses crimes and wickedness in the society. The novel contains poetic justice. Criminals never go unpunished. For instance, Fagin is executed and Sikes is forced to commit suicide. Dickens, the entertainer had an eye for the middle-class readers, reforms in the working of the poor houses is suggested, the dismissal of persons like Bumble. And a strong appeal for the better treatment of children is also suggested. Dickens creates various characters and their relationships to convey his message to the public, the Victorian society in particular.


To bring a conclusion of our critical assessment of the famous English novelist, Charles Dickens will never be an easy task. He is not only a social reformer but also a humanitarian novelist. He constructed his plots found among the English people of London city and their relationships which ultimately became of universal significance. His novels provide a fine and vivid scene of London life which evolved after rapid industrial revolution of England. Arthur Compton-Rickett has rightly observed thus:

“The novel provides such a facile and attractive means of popular appeal, and is so adaptable to literary fashions, that its continued vitality will surprise no one.” (2012:661-662)

Charles Dickens along with his contemporary, W.M. Thackeray is able to provide a new genre of fiction for the fiction covers all over the world. Though Charles Dickens portrayed the London life of his age, his fame was not confined to England. It was of universal significance.

As his age was an age of industrial revolution, life in London was very hard with the rapid changes taking place in England. He knew the hard facts of life of the country thereby made him to depict these pictures so as to reform it to make a sustainable environment by waking up the authority’s eyes. His novels have many characters starting from childhood to manhood as a society is comprised of children, men and women and other old people. All these characters are seen in his novels. Therefore, in such a situation, the human relationships have been fabricated throughout the novels. We know that one generation is replaced by another generation, and to see a generation, society starts from a child growing to manhood and womanhood which is seen in most of his novels. He experienced the hard life of children and this is his main theme of novels. Many children are portrayed in his novels as a society consists of children and men and women together. Here to quote W.R Goodman’s remark:

“In the crowd of human beings that throng these books there are many boys and girls. Often, indeed, a novel is the story of a child growing into manhood and womanhood; and no preceding novelist had written so much of the experiences of childhood.” (2010: 373)

He has produced about fifteen novels altogether including his last unfinished novel, Edwin Drood, with readers from different parts of the world from America to Russia. He was received warmly in America in streets by big crowds and welcomed by many including politicians, judges and bishops. His child image is tactfully portrayed with miserable life of child as an orphan. His novel after Pickwick Paper, Oliver Twist deals with the illegitimate child, Oliver who has been tortured in school or workplace or anywhere even in streets also. It is true that Oliver’s friendships, his quarrels, his gang friend, his running away from the horrible life in the workhouse to London city make up what seems to be an orphan story. There are many children in the novel such as Fagin, Nancy, Sikes out of whom Nancy, he has a good relationships among the child characters which readers love to learn about.

Dickens was a clever artist who made his novels interesting with the products of human relationships for the background and experience of social life of London which has different strata of English society. He introduces different types of characters in which we find, the illegitimate child, Oliver in Oliver Twist which feel sympathy in every reader. Other types of characters are the horrible characters or villains like Squeer, Fagin, Uriah Heap, and Sikes etc.

In the novel, Oliver Twist, Oliver has varied relationships with different characters like, Mrs. Mann, Mr. Bumble, Mr. Gamfield ( (the men appropriate for Oliver), Mr. Sowerberry, Nancy, Noah Charlott, Dodger  etc. Through his relationship with these people one can have a look of man-woman relationship, friend to friend relationship, Master – servant relationship, boy – girl relationship, Husband – wife relationship, boy – ladies relationship.


Alexander Welsh, The City of Dickens, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971)

Arthur Compton-Rickett, A History of English Literature (New Delhi: Universal Book Stall, 2012)

Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, (New Delhi, Surjeet Publications, 2007)

  1. Hillis Miller, Charles Dickens, The World of his novels, (Cambridge, Massachusetts; Havard University Press, 1970)

W.R. Goodman, A History of English Literature, Vol-2 (Delhi: Doaba House, 2010), p. 373

Mei Chin, On the Works of Charles Dickens, in Harold Bloom’s Charles Dickens, ed. (Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publication, 2003)

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