Portrayal of Children in Ruskin Bond’s Short Stories

Article Posted in: Research Articles


By – Prof. Ravi K Dhar & Dr. Soniya Verma

Published in Vol.II, Issue.XXI, October 2016 

Introduction to the Authors:

Ravi K Dhar is a professor and director at Jagannath International Management School, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi.
Dr. Soniya Verma is an assistant professor, Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad.


The remarkable blending of the literary traditions of Indian and English literature is noticeable feature of Bond’s creativity. He is living in Mussoorie for last 5 decades. Since then he has been ceaselessly jotting down with his pen the inexhaustible mysteries of life in a sizeable canon of his creative literature. In his writings, he focuses the individuality of children, their dreams and their adventures like English children’s writing. He captures the innocence of children in his fiction like Indian authors.

The stories like The Angry River and The Blue Umbrella brilliantly amalgamate the traditions of Indian and English Children’s literature. Sita, the young heroine of The Angry River bravely fights the destructive forces of nature. Binya, the vivacious girl of “The Blue Umbrella” successfully overcomes the self-seeking attitude towards life. The readers are motivated in witnessing the indomitable spirit of both the heroines, Sita and Binya, as they fight the external and internal forces of life.

The story The Blue Umbrella is a great example of Bond’s ability to present the intricacies of life with much simplicity. With just an old man and little girl and a few minor characters, he reveals to us all the facets of emotions that make us human – joy, pain, anger, disappointment and hurt and all the tragedies and celebrations that make life what it is. Binya, the child heroine of a moving story The Blue Umbrella from Gharwal hills, is hardly ten-year-old. She willingly lends her pleasing smile to anyone who is unhappy. She possesses the heart of a young lady. On a childish impulse, she quickly gets ready to exchange her charmed pendant made up of a leopard’s claw for a dainty, blue silk umbrella. The umbrella is owned by a wealthy woman who came for picnic in the hills. Binya’s pendant created a stir in the heart of this lady. With a desire to possess the pendant she reluctantly gets ready to exchange her umbrella for it. Binya is very happy, on the seventh heaven, after receiving the blue umbrella. She gets enamoured by its beauty. Her passion sees no limit for her prize possession. She carries it wherever she goes and seldom closes it. It accompanies her everywhere protecting her from storms and snakes, as goes the description: “Whenever Binya went out – whether it was to graze the cows, or fetch water from the spring, or carry milk to the little tea shop on the Tehri road – she took the umbrella with her. That patch of sky blue silk could always be seen on the hillside”1.

Binya’s fawn like movements in dale and forest like Wordsworth’s Lucy, her innocence like Tagore’s Mini from Kabuliwala draw our attention and her love for the umbrella enthralls us. Binya enjoys her raised status in the village. The disparity between Binya’s poverty and the richness of the umbrella created a stir of jealousy among the villagers. The school master’s wife, a second class B. A. feels extremely degraded in not having the rich possession. She thinks it was quite wrong for a poor cultivator’s daughter to have such a fine umbrella while she, a second class B. A. has to make do with an ordinary one. Everyone heaves a sigh of longing for Binya’s elegant umbrella.

The large heartedness and innocence of children are set in direct contrast with the shrewdness and envious nature of grown-ups. Bond here juxtaposes the two worlds the innocent world of children and the cunning and manipulative world of adults. The children openly admire Binya’s blue umbrella and get thrilled by its sensational touch. It is their sincere appreciation for umbrella that gives them a chance to hold it and experience its thrilling touch. The malicious attitude of grown-ups stopped them to admire it openly. But secretly everyone craves to possess it.

Bond brilliantly here celebrates the innocence of children by setting them against the world of adults. The children sincerely appreciate Binya’s umbrella and give a vent to their true feelings. By criticizing umbrella the grown-ups reveal their prejudice and egotism. Away from pretensions, the children openly praise it: “Unlike the adults, the children didn’t have to pretend. They were full of praise for the umbrella … They knew that if they said nice things about the umbrella, Binya would smile and give it to them to hold for a little while – – just a very little while!”2

This little girl Binya by her heroic adventures wins our heart. She frees her umbrella from the clutches of a thief Rajaram, an employee of a tea shop proprietor, Ram Bharosa. From the day Ram Bharosa had seen Binya’s umbrella he became so passionate about it that he wanted to own it at any cost. When his all mean attempts to seize it from Binya and her brother Bijju utterly failed, he sent Rajaram to steal it. The villagers got angry on knowing Ram Bharosa’s use of wrong means to get it from Binya. They boycotted him and stopped buying things from his shop. His reputation, business and life all collapsed as time passes by.

The story reaches at its climax. The sympathy is overtaken not by the malice of the villagers against Ram Bharosa but by the sympathy and love of Binya for this forsaken man. She secretly feels herself responsible for the miserable plight of Ram Bharosa whom the villagers and the children have made the target of their taunts and jeers. She questions her own self – a mere object an umbrella is more important to her, or an old man and his feelings.

It is through Binya, Bond raises the pertinent question on the concept of material happiness and futility of the whole process. He highlights the Indian ethics which ignore material wealth before the felling and concern for others. The battle of wills between the old man and the girl takes many unexpected turns. The compassionate heart of Binya wins. She discovers there is more to life than material possession. This little lady, Binya willingly donates her prize possession, the blue umbrella to Ram Bharosa. By her kind gesture, she teaches the great lesson of humanity. Love breeds love. Crooked Ram Bharosa melts. Hel repays her generosity by presenting her a pendant made up of a bear’s claw (more auspicious than leopard’s claw) tied in a silver chain. Who says the world cannot be changed? The present story proves that a child can. The projection of an undercurrent of the inherent moral education is very appealing. The novel pays a tribute to the basic goodness of man and underlines better than any philosophical treatise could, that human voice and goodness are not inborn but a result of circumstances. Who we call villain is not devoid of nobility. A touch of compassion, an ability to share and a sense of justice can turn a heart of stone into a heart of gold. Ram Bharosa’s case is an example of it. He rises like a phoenix from Binya’s kindness, lovely smile and selfless donation.

Bond effectively blends the tradition and canon of Indian and English children’s literature in this story. By portraying Binya’s free spiritedness, her heroic adventure to save her umbrella from a thief and her passion for it, Bond focuses the individuality of a child as does the English children’s literature. The story highlights the innocence of children and communicates the lessons of kindness, sympathy and brotherhood like the traditional children’s literature in India does.

Bond’s acumen could well be observed in his projection of life-like children. His child protagonists appeal enormously for their love, adventures and inquisitiveness to know the things around them. They pester the adults, at time their friends, with unending and mind boggling questions. They frequently tell lies which are invented truths of their imagination, tease each other, befriend again forgetting the scuffle of one minute before and show concern for peer interests.

The child characters of Bond act and behave as the children do in any part of the world. In their appearance and attire, Bond’s children could differ from the children of the world but not in their attitude and temperament. If Tom Sawyer of Mark Twain steals jam from a pot in the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Ranji, Koki and Teju of Bond steal guavas in the story “When Guavas are Ripe.” Tom befools Aunt Polly and so do these three children play tricks on Gopal, the watchman of the guava orchard. Aunt Polly punishes Tom by asking him to whitewash the fence. Tom shows excessive interest and indulgence in whitewashing with the intention to allure his friends to complete his work. His trick works. The gullible friends of Tom not only whitewashed the fence but also enriched Tom by gifts for allowing them whitewashing. Teju, Koki and Ranji flatter Gopal, an ex-wrestler and the keeper of an orchard. They praise his prowess and physique and listen to dull stores of his bravery with the sole interest of procuring guavas in return. The old and lonely Gopal was immensely impressed by children’s flattery. He treated them with the grand feast of guavas from his orchard. Tom and Huck love adventures. They enjoy hunting and fishing and go for expedition to Jackson’s Island. Laurie, Anil and Kamal of The Hidden Pool enjoy themselves the secrete pool on the mountain site. At the pool they fish, build dams, take midnight dips, wrestle and ride buffaloes. They go for trekking up to Pindari Glacier at 12,000 feet above sea level, where no one from their town has gone before. Rusty in The Room on the Roof runs away from his apathetic and strict guardian, Kishen in Vagrants in the Valley from his drunken father, Daljit and Rusty from school. Thus Bond children follow the trend of running away from home or work like Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Kim and Huckleberry Finn.

The act of stealing jam or guava, place of expedition on Jackson’s Island or Pindari Glacier, reasons for running away from school or home could differ but not the spirit of Bond’s children from the children in other cultures. Telling lies, stealing things, playing pranks on others and benefiting in their small enterprises are the common activities of Bond’s children. Thus, Bond achieves universality while delineating with accuracy the familiar characteristics of his child protagonists. His close observation of children’s behavior endows his child persona with convincing authenticity: “And here I stand at my window, watching some of them pass by – boys and girls, big and small, some scruffy, some smart, some mischievous, some serious, but all going somewhere hopefully towards a better future”3.

Children have always rated those people high in the list of their favorites who respect their feelings, trust them and stand by them in times of trouble. That’s why indulging and doting grandparents and grown-ups with caring and understanding attitude are always preferred by children to the domination and disciplinarian ones. Bond colors the canvas of his stores with friendly and considerate adults who love children and are loved by them in return. Michael Heyman says that Bond “depicts relationships between adults and children where children are not wiser, and where they rarely challenge the adults”4. Bond is aware of the fact that the tender body and immature mind of children need protection and guidance, to acclimatize themselves in the world of adults. He invokes loving and nurturing relationship between children and adults – not necessarily parents. Loving portrayal of friendly adults and doting grandparents have autobiographical reasons as Bond says: “In some of my children’s stores I have written about fun-loving grandfathers and doting grandmothers, but this was just wishful thinking on my part”5.

The credit of flourishing a separate corpus of literature for children goes in Bond’s favor. He freed children’s literature from the shackles of retold Indian mythology, legends and folklores, adaptation of western stories and also from the mode of didacticism. He nourishes it by setting on a new foot of realism. His writing is marked by an individual signature. His canvas radiates with vivacious children who by their individuality captivate us. He is one of the few authors who straddle the gulf between prescribed and popular texts. Praising Bond’s art, Prema Srinivasan writes: “This sensitive story-teller from the hills has been able to set a standard for quality book for children in English which can be read with pleasure by the adult as well”6

Bond’s love for children and his dual British and Indian heritage lend depth to his writing. He selects his style and subjects with the child reader in mind. His first person narrative helps the young audience to identify easily with the narrator child. He displays a fresh outlook while projecting he world of children, their dreams and high spiritedness. He has consolidated the notion of the child as cherished and valued members of the society who has his own aspirations to follow and dreams to pursue. Bond has the uncanny capacity of going straight into the heart of reader and unveiling the layers of childhood – universal in its romanticism. His stories have marked the trail for the future writers.

The cultural code and family matrix of Indian and western society differ entirely. Hence literature, a replica of the milieu in which it is created, is bound to differ. Commenting on the difference between the attitudes of an Indian writer in relation to a western one, Vrinda Nabar points out:

The importance of individualism in distinguishing between the two world outlooks, the Westren and the Indian, cannot be undermined. In spite of a marginal literary move in the Indian languages toward the western mood canon in this respect, both Indian literature and culture have remained largely impervious to its message.7

In Indian family system the children have always enjoyed the friendly and secure company of grandparents. Children reciprocate the love and care of grandparents with the same zeal. The writers with young readers in mind have always exploited this theme. Idgah by Premachand is one such touching tale. Hamid, the young hero overcomes the glamour of fancy toys and mouth watering sweets at the fair to return home with a pair of tongs for his grandmother. Khushwant Singh lovingly talks about his grandmother and the spirited relationship between him and her in the story Portrait of a Lady.

The strange woman in the story The Woman on Platform No. 8, Aunt Mariam in A Guardian Angel, grandfather in All creatures Great and Small, Mr. Kumar in Ranji’s Wonderful Bat, Bansi in The Last Tonga Ride, Mr. Khushal in Masterji, Keemat Lal in A case for Inspector Lal, grandfather in Grandfather’s Private Zoo and in The Cherry Tree are a few loving adults who become the source of children’s growth and education and self-knowledge. They take care of the child protagonists by their caring attitude. These kind hearted adults command respect. They pass on their wisdom to children and enable them to gain confidence and assume responsibilities. The invigorating relationship between children and adults nurture the young readers with positive vibes. This harmonious relationship Bond himself has experienced and poignantly deals with when the children and grand children of his adopted son Prem become dear to his heart:

“Prem came to live and work with me in 1970. A year later, he was married. Then his children came along and stole my heart; and when they grew up, their children came along and stole my wits”8.

Bond presents two kinds of adult characters: one who acts as possible catalyst and the other who creates hindrance. In general, the adults in Bond’s stories are considerate and contact with them exposes children to new vista and a better perspective. They love and rescue innocent and naïve kids from troubles like the fairy Godmother of Cinderella. The good natured strange woman who gives treat to a lonely child in The Woman on Platform No. 8, caring Aunt Mariam who takes care of an orphan nephew, in The Thief are thoughtful adults who by their positive attitude and loving approach take care of the children and guide them during trouble. They receive deep reverence of children. They pass on their wisdom to children and enable them to gain confidence and assume responsibilities. The invigorating relationship of children with adults paves the way toward happy selfhood.

The story The Woman on Platform No. 8 deals with a boy, Arun and his encounter with a benevolent lady. Arun was sitting on platform no. 8 at Ambala station waiting for northern bound train. He heard a soft voice asking him “Are you all alone, my son?”9 . It was a lady with pale face and dark kind eyes. She was dressed very simply in a white saree. Her dignity and simplicity commanded respect. The lady offered a treat of samosa, jalebi and tea to Arun. The treat strengthened the bond between the strangers. Under the influence of the tea and sweets, Arun began to talk quite freely about his school, friends, likes and dislikes. The lady won Arun by showing her confidence in Arun’s capacity of travelling alone. Arun told her that he could travel alone, she quickly agreed: “I am sure you can’ [travel] … and I like her for saying that, and I also liked her for the simplicity of her dress, and for her deep, soft voice and the serenity of her face”10.

Arun extremely got impressed by the simplicity and caring attitude of this lady. But he disliked his class- fellow, Satish’s mother, an authoritative and overbearing lady. He got infuriated even by her sound advice. He found himself hating her “with a firm, unreasoning hate”11. She looked sternly at Arun through her spectacles. She asked him not to talk to strangers. Arun retorted he would because he liked strangers. Satish enjoyed this verbal fighting between his friend and his mother. He was on his friend’s side which revealed his dissent against his mother’s grinning at me, and delighting in my clash with his mother. Apparently he was on my side”12. Arun’s dissent pleases the child readers as well. Children in general only those stores where the domineering adults are outwitted by children, “where powerful or mischievous characters defy authority and break most of the conventional rules”13 . The glimpse of selfless love between the pale faced kind woman in white saree and the lonely boy at the station suggests the victory of human bond.

The children need love, care, protection and encouragement for their all-round upbringing. Bond’s fiction abounds with caring friends and sensitive adults who fulfill the needs of children. Mr. Kumar, owner of the sports store in Ranji’s Wonderful Bat is one friendly term with Ranji feels relaxed as soon as he enters the shop of Mr. Kumar. He is upset because of not making good score in his last three matches. He will be now dropped from the team if he does not improve in the next game. Mr. Kumar, cheers him up by saying “never mind, where would we be without losers?” and “All players have a bad day now and then”14. Kumar gives Ranji the luckiest of all his old bats with which he had scored a hundred runs. The bat proves lucky for Ranji as well. He scores many runs. One day he loses his lucky bat. All his happiness and dreams were shattered. Mr. Kumar consoles Ranji saying that he could make all the runs he wanted: “Any bat will do”15. In order to boost his confidence, Mr. Kumar has given him an ordinary bat, saying it was the luckiest bat. Now when Ranji loses it, he loses all hope of winning any further match. Mr. Kumar discloses the truth. Ranji understands Mr. Kumar’s advice, “… it’s the batsman and not the bat that matters” and “a bat has magic only when the batsman has magic!”16 It is confidence not the bat which Ranji needs. Kumar intends to make Ranji realize that he as a player has always been good, is good and will be no matter whether he loses or wins. Mr. Kumar judges him right. A confident Ranji performs well and wins the next match.

The case of jai in the story The Eye of an Eagle is also like Ranji. He takes his lambs for grazing to the hills. He feels disappointed when his one lamb was taken away by a golden eagle. His grandfather consoles him. He gives jai a long stout stick made of wild cherry wood which he often carries around. He advises jai to swing the stick around his head if the eagle comes near him or attacks his lamb that will frighten the eagle off. Jai hits the eagles when they attack. He loses his stick while fighting the eagles. He was discouraged on losing the lucky stick. The grandfather comforts him and asks him not to worry because “It isn’t the stick that matters. It’s the person who holds it”17. Jai like Ranji comes to realize his own potentiality. Thus Bond’s adults not only provide companionship but also guide and instruct children but not in a preachy manner. The loving and nurturing relationship between children and adults is dealt with exquisitely through a child and his doting Ayah in the story My First Love. It centers on the affection of a child for his Ayah. The child does not like when anyone calls her ugly. He promptly responses: “No she is beautiful!”18. The course of this pure love affair between a child of six and an Ayah of thirty gets broken when she plans to get married. The thought of separation from his beloved saddens the child:

“While my parents considered this a perfectly natural desire on Ayah’s part, I looked upon it as an act of base treachery. For several days I went about the house in a rebellious and sulky mood, refusing to speak to Ayah no matter how much she coaxed and petted me” 19

The child hides himself when the time of Ayah’s moving with her husband comes. The nervous and dismayed Ayah keeps on looking left and right and calling the child with the hope to see him. Unable to bear the misery of Ayah any longer, the child comes out of the hiding place. The Ayah gathers the child up in her great arms. Recording the happy moment while parting from his beloved, the child says “… when the tonga finally took her away, there was a dazzling smile on her sweet and gentle face – the face of the lover whom I was never to see again … ”20 . Bond’s story echoes Bapsi Sidhwa’s The – Ice – Candy-Man which also reveals the love between the child narrator and her Ayah. The novel features an eight-year-old girl named Lenny cared by her Ayah, an eighteen-year-old dusky beauty, Shantha. Leny recalls her first conscious memory of her Ayah thus: “She passes pushing my pram with the unconcern of the Hindu goddess she worships”21.

In The Last Tonga Ride the child narrator enjoys the company of a tonga-driver, Bansi Lal. He feels rejuvenated and much more important on being called dost (friend) and enjoys his raised status: “He did not call me ‘chota sahib’, or ‘baba,’ ‘but dost’ and this made me feel much more important. Not every small boy could boast of a tonga driver for his friend!”22 . The boy loves the thrill of free tonga ride with Bansi. He accompanies him even though being scolded by his granny and ayah.

In A case for Inspector Lal Bond introduces a kind inspector Keemat Lal. He is made up of such instrument which is unlikely to be found in his profession. He keeps the sentiment and life of a little girl Kusum above his promotion. He hides all the evidence against her to save and protect her from the cruel law that can put her in a remand home and may have crushed her gentle spirit. Kusum the poor, rustic, innocent and trusting girls of twelve or thirteen is implicated in a foul game of lust and betrayal. In order to defend herself, she has to hit her molester and accidentally who trapped her gets killed.

Rani, a lecherous woman calls Kusum to her house and offers her tea and sweets. Mr. Kapoor, a customer of Rani who was already there starts harassing Kusum. Scared by Kapoor’s amorous advance, Kusum slips away and makes a rush for the door. But Rani catches her and pushes her back into the room. Kusum seizes an axe and in panic she brings the axe down across Rani’s head. The act of the murder by Kusum is done in self-defence. She is not a murderer. Rani receives what she deserves. The Inspector Keemat Lal does nothing even after discovering the truth. He tells the narrator, “I did absolutely nothing. I couldn’t have crushed her sprit”23. Keemat Lal remained quiet. The case was closed. It was put in the pending tray and so was his promotion which was solely dependent on his tracking him case of murder. He was disheartened on not getting the promotion. He closed the “file” of Kusum’s case and of his promotion for ever. His success as a human being smiles upon his failure as a professional. That makes him regret, “I should never have been a policeman”24. The act of Keemat Lal may be against the rule of law but not the law of humanity. He wins our heart despite not being loyal to his duty. The readers sympathize with Kusum and Keemat Lal for their decision and are touched by the hind of an emotional attachment between them, even if it is a merely paternal affection. A humane interest in the self of others on Keemat’s part confirms the importance of love in Bond’s work. Bond’s “childlike trust in grown-ups”25 helps him in creating a captivating character like Keemat Lal.

The story A Guardian Angel invokes the loving bond between an aunt and her six-year-old orphan nephew. Aunt Mariam assures the child by her warmth, worldliness and carefree chatter when his mother passes away. The child enjoys on enjoys on being called ladla (dear) by her. Mariam is an outcaste for her family because of bringing disgrace to it by becoming a mistress but for the child, she is an angel. The child is unable to understand why his mother was cold and indifferent towards such a friendly and cheerful person, Aunt Mariam. It is only Mariam who comes to rescue the child with great readiness when his mother dies. Her tenderness and selfless approach fills the void in the life of the child. The boy characteristically recalls her personality. For him, she was a “joyous, bubbling creature – a force of nature rather than a woman – and every time I think of her I am tempted to put down on paper some aspect of her conversation, or gestures, or her magnificent physique”26.


The story Getting Granny’s Glasses focuses on the attachment between a grandmother and his grandson Mani. Mani offers to accompany his grandmother on a two-day journey to Mussoorie where the nearest eye hospital is located, so that she can get a new pair of glasses. The atmosphere of this Himalayan region during monsoon is charmingly described as the two set off on their adventure. They walk through field and forests, up and down mountains, see a river rushing swiftly, pass a mule-driver singing a romantic song and admire a flock of parrots and the hills. The glasses renew Granny’s zest for life. She buys gifts for the whole family, including a bell for the cow. With her improved vision, Granny excitedly rediscovers the beauty of her surrounding but her greatest joy is seeing what a fine boy Mani has grown up to be.

Majority of adult characters of Bond are portrayed in positive vein. But still there are some characters like Mr. Harrison, the strict guardian of Rusty, drunkard Mr. Kapoor, indifferent towards the need of his son and caring wife, in The Room on the Roof; Mrs. Bhushan a nosey and overbearing lady in Vagrants in the Valley; Satish mother a domineering and imposing lady in The Woman on the Platform no. 8. The adolescent characters are shown in clashes with adults. They defy the authority and break the conventional rules. Adolescence is a period in one’s life when one becomes very sensitive and opposes protractions, rules and codes of conduct which one cannot absorb. Rusty in Room on the Roof rebels against the restriction of his guardian Mr. Harrison. He defied the rigid social codes of the English which do not allow him to mix with the natives. Harrison beats him for playing holi (an Indian festival) with his friends. Rusty repulses the attack of his guardian, beats him on the rebound and runs away.

The adults in Bond’s stories, in general, are supportive of children. They stand by them, guide them and nurture them with love. They do not obstruct their way rather remove stumbling blocks from their path. Bond enforces healthy relationship through his loving adults. His portrayal of adults differs from Narayan and Dickens. Swaminathan of Swami and Friends suffers the oppressive regime of adults embodied by male authorities: father, teachers, headmasters, doctors and the forest officer. Child heroes of Dickens – Oliver, Pip, Neil, David suffer the ruthless treatment meted out to them by the adults and society. The exploitation, the sad surroundings and miserable life make the process of growing up difficult for Dickens’ children. Bond’s child protagonist also has to face difficulties and vagaries of life. They successfully overcome it. Both Dickens and Bond had unhappy and insecure childhood. The trauma of unhappy childhood is revealed in Dickens, through the suffering world of children. Contrary to Dickens, Bond creates happy-go-lucky life where children enjoy blissful presence of the elders. The relationship of friendship is a very important tie in Bond’s work. This binds his young persona with each other and with the world. Bond remains unsurpassed in his portrayal of friendship, captivating the young minds. The bond of friendship plays a vital role in shaping the personality of young boys. Particular emphasis is placed on the need for security in the life of adolescents.




  1. “The River is Eternal: Nature Mysticism and Vedanta Philosophy in Ruskin

Bond’s Angry River.” The Lion and Unicorn. 19.2 December 1995: 254-268.

  1. Khorana, Meena G. The Life and Works of Ruskin Bond. London: Praeger, 2003. 43-44.
  2. Bond, Ruskin Children’s Omnibus. New Delhi: Rupa, 1995. pp 29
  3. Bond, Ruskin Children’s Omnibus. New Delhi: Rupa, 1995. pp 40
  4. Bond, Ruskin. The India I Love. New Delhi: Rupa, 2004. pp 9
  5. 253-254
  6. Scenes From Writer’s Life: A Memoir . New Delhi: Penguin, 1997. pp 34.
  7. Children’s Fiction in English in India: Trends and Motifs. Chennai: T. R. Publication, 1998. pp 52.
  1. Ibid. 30
  2. Bond, Ruskin. The India I Love. New Delhi: Rupa, 2004. pp 13.
  3. Friends in Small Places: Ruskin Bond’s Unforgettable People. New Delhi: Penguin, 2000. pp 3.
  1. Collected Fiction. New Delhi: Penguin, 1996. pp 4.
  2. pp 7
  3. pp 6
  4. Tucker, Nicholas. The Child and the Book: A Psychological and literary Exploration. London: Cambridge U. P. 1982. pp. 20.
  1. Bond, Ruskin Children’s Omnibus. New Delhi: Rupa, 1995. pp 229.
  2. pp 232.
  3. pp 234.
  4. pp 234.
  5. Bond, Ruskin. Panther’s Moon and Other Stories.Illus. Suddhasattwa Basu. New Delhi: Puffin, 1991. pp. 83.
  1. Collected Fiction. New Delhi: Penguin, 1996. pp 513.
  2. pp 517.
  3. Sidhwa, Bapsi. Ice-Candy-Man. New Delhi: Penguin Books India 1989. pp 3.
  4. Collected Fiction. New Delhi: Penguin, 1996. pp 446.
  5. pp 95.
  6. pp 96.
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