The Rhetoric of Non-fiction: A Review of the Discourse Features of Select Popular Motivational Books

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The Rhetoric of Non-fiction: A Review of the Discourse Features of Select Popular Motivational Books

 By Pratap Kumar Dash, Vol.II, Issue XIX

Introduction to the Author:

Pratap Kumar DashDr.Pratap  Kumar Dash is a teacher of English by profession. He has taught both in India and Libya. He has published research papers in journals like Search, RJLCS, Language in India, Contemporary Discourse, ELTV-I, ELT Weekly, Point of View, Transnational Literature etc. Currently, he is working as a senior faculty member in English at C.V.Raman (Autonomous) College of Engineering, Bidyanagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.



This paper attempts at analyzing the rhetoric of selected contemporary motivational books of our time in English. They range from religious and moral themes to factors of personality development. Firstly, it discusses briefly the different types of nonfictions and their subject matters from which stems the importance of motivational books. Then, it focuses on the basic elements of rhetoric proceeds to define the motivational books from an impressionistic point of view and discusses the theme of such books in the next section. Secondly, it undertakes the thrust of this paper by analyzing the textual evidences relating to rhetorical modes of the books that abound the skills of composition; and examines the effective use of the rhetorical elements in words, sentences and suprasegmental features. Thirdly, it makes a comparative analysis of the use of metadiscourse strategies adopted in selected books written on the similar themes to show the credibility of the motivational books which have brought about effective influence and attention of the readers. Finally, it synthesizes the above discussed points with the findings that such books can influence readers because of their instrumental and persuasive language functions and make use of appropriate rhetorical skills of composition with tangible pragmatic intensity.

Key words: rhetorical modes, rhetorical elements and skills, metadiscourse




The varieties of nonfiction writings in English are vast these days. They are available in the forms of biography, scientific, socio-cultural, psychological, philosophical and economic writings. Religious, patriotic, argumentative, war experiences and life style books are also included in this. All such writings bear some sort of unique thematic and stylistic features for which they are readers’ favorites so far. But as a matter of fact, one category of books of this genre reflects exclusively personal inventions, ideologies and thoughts born out of the experiments and observations of the respective authors from time to time. The authors of such writings take care of presentation of facts with considerable stylistic deviations which ultimately aim at enabling people to achieve professional goals and successful personality dynamically incorporating higher ethical, moral and creative standard both in thought and action. Such motivational books in English as a type of nonfiction constitute the important genre of narratives and win great worldwide readerly appreciation so far.  These books not only entertain and enlighten us but also act as guides in order to bring about balance between body and mind; between changing time and civilization; between society and culture; between profession and person and the like. In this context, this paper examines the textual configuration constituting themes and styles of such books which might open up a greater interest for critical reading and research.

Rhetoric: a general discussion

 In fact, Crystal (2008) discusses that rhetoric in classical approaches to language is the study of effective or persuasive speaking and writing, especially as practiced in public oratory. Several hundred rhetorical figures were recognized by classical rhetoricians, classifying the way words could be arranged in order to achieve special stylistic effects. Some of these notions have continued in modern stylistic analysis such as metaphor, simile, personification and paradox. The study of rhetoric has been given a new lease of life in modern courses on communication, where the aim is to understand the processes underlying successful argument and persuasion.

       According to Abrams and Harpham (2009), following Aristotle’s lead, classical theorists analyzed an effective rhetorical discourse as consisting of three components: invention (the finding of arguments or proofs), disposition (the arrangement of such materials), and style (the choice of words, verbal patterns, and rhythms that will most effectively express and convey these materials). Rhetoricians also discriminated three main classes of oratory, each of which uses characteristic devices to achieve its distinctive type of persuasive effect: Deliberative, that is to persuade an audience (such as a legislative assembly) to approve or disapprove of a matter of public policy, and to act accordingly; Forensic that is to achieve (for example, in a judicial trial) either the condemnation or approval of some person’s actions; and Epideictic that isdisplay rhetoric,’ used on appropriate, usually ceremonial occasions. Most of the modern dictionaries say it as the skill(s) of using language in speech or writing in a special way that influences or entertains people.

Defining motivational books

 With the development of a global culture of rich academic and business ambience, the needs of life of people of the world are becoming better, higher and at the same time getting globalized too. Irrespective of culture, religion and profession, people of the world are in need of acquiring better thoughts, decisions and actions both in personal as well as professional life.

        Here emerge the intrinsic and broadly applied life management factors which need to be recurrently vitalized, refreshed and made up-to-date. Thus, the so-called motivational writers (most of them are good orators too) of our time are committed to providing such stuffs to the global readership as well as leadership. Their motivational books seem to be the fourth wave in the process of writing in rhetoric, being the first wave is obviously with the mythological and religious scriptures like The Gita, The Bible and The Quran and their respective preachers and interpreters. Then, the second wave is with the great epics followed by the orations and classical writings of Machiavelli and Kautilya like eminent scholars. The third wave is with the eminent philosophers and thinkers of classical, medieval and modern time ranging from Socrates to Carl Marx; from Mao-te-sung to Nietzse, Emerson, Bertrand Russell, Radhakrishnan or J.Krishnamurthi and many others. They continue to influence people of the world.  The need of effective intercultural communication and leading better life; and good management of personal and professional activities give rise to the need of input from the different motivational sources. The orientation of knowledge of professionals needed to be multidisciplinary, result-oriented and pragmatic. The personal, professional, as well as organizational behaviors, needed to be guided by the polished and value-based ways and activities to achieve greater effects. Personality factors, life of professionals, and workmanship need to be vitalized in more progressive and productive ways. As a potential input, interdisciplinary studies and multidisciplinary knowledge needed to be imbibed to apply to human life and their activities of the cosmopolitan, unprejudiced and unbiased netizens of the 21st century.

       In this context, it is noticed that the motivational books of our time contain the input of knowledge from the resultant resources of our studies those who churn up the sum and substance of the different fields of knowledge together to revitalize and refresh the people of different fields in different positions. These books constitute elements of moral influence with reflections of personal experiences; lessons from the lives of eminent personalities of different fields, history, religion, culture, civilization, philosophy, science, literature, war, and businesses etc. These books conglomerate a number of information ranging from theory to practice; from experiences to observations; and from the past of human civilization to the present globalization sizably and systematically to inform and influence the human thoughts and actions in different ways. Some of these writings imbibe their ideas and interpretations from the Biblical and/or Vedic ethics whereas some others take the real life accounts and experiences. Some others focus more on a neutral corporate and business ethics only through the logic of explorations of human resource management. However, it is felt that still the debate of conflict and compromise between doubt and faith between science and religion; natural and artificial still continues.

Analysis of the rhetorical modes

The rhetorical modes of composition usually follow variously the techniques of exposition, narration, description, and argumentation/persuasion. In addition, they adopt the appeals to authority (ethos); appeals to reason (logos); and appeals to emotion (pathos) because they virtually aim at a positive feedback with effective results in practical life. Unlike the texts of literary types, these books are not meant to be read and enjoyed only; rather they gather information to present and motivate the readers to follow certain style and strategies of organizing the discourse for effective communication with the global readership of all varieties and tastes.  Thus, they try to incorporate the selective stylistic elements such as tongue twisters, repetitions, acronyms and rhythmic words, emphasis, maxims, anecdotes, records of remarkable events and experiences etc. In most of such writings, however, it is noticed that they adopt economy of language and present facts or explanations in the form of notes and do not adopt exhaustive narratives.  For example, they follow a style of presenting a statement, a maxim or a short anecdote or a remarkable experience taken from somebody’s biographical accounts followed by precise explanations related to the purpose of discussion and finally come to focus on the morality of the discussion with some other supporting information. In the context of highlighting the merits of positive attitude, Shiv Khera adopts the following:

Presentation of the Skills of composition

  1. The title: Looking for the Gold
  2. The anecdote:

      “As a young Scots boy, Andrew Carnegie came to America and started doing odd jobs. He ended up as one of the largest steel manufacturers in the United States. At one time he had 43 millionaires working for him. Several decades ago, a million dollars used to be a lot of money; even today it is a lot of money. Someone asked Mr. Carnegie how he dealt with people? Andrew Carnegie replied, “Dealing with people is like digging  gold: When you go digging for an ounce of gold, you have to move tons of dirt to get an ounce of gold. But when you go digging, you don’t go looking for the dirt, you go looking for the gold.”

Explanation with rhetorical questions:

What is your focus? Become a digger for gold. If you are looking for what is wrong with people or with things, you will find many. What are you looking for? Andrew Carnegie’s reply has a very important message. There is something positive in every person and every situation. Sometimes we have to dig deep to look for the positive because it may not be apparent. Besides, we are so used to looking for what is wrong with other people and situations, we forget to see what is right. Someone once said that even a stopped clock is right twice a day.


     Remember when you go looking for gold, you have to move tons of dirt to get to an ounce of gold. But when you go looking, you don’t go looking for the dirt, you go looking for the gold. (Khera 9)

In another way, they take into account a statement, concept or maxim for discussion and go on proving the logic of its merits and demerits to come to a suitable conclusion as the following in noticed in Carnegie:

  1. Argument:

       If your temper is aroused and you tell ’em a thing or two, you will have a fine time unloading your feelings. But what about the other person? Will he share your pleasure? Will your belligerent tones, your hostile attitude, make it easy for him to agree with you? “If you come at me with your fists doubled,” said Woodrow Wilson, “I think I can promise you that mine will double as fast as yours; but if you come to me and say, ‘Let us sit down and take counsel together, and, if we differ from each other, understand why it is that we differ, just what the points at issue are,’ we will presently find that we are not so far apart after all, that the points on which we differ are few and the points on which we agree are many, and that if we only have the patience and the candor and the desire to get together, we will get together.” (Carnegie115)

2. Discussion:

This argument is followed by the incidents and experiences quoted from Rockfeller, Robert E. Black, Daniel Webster, O.L. Straub, Dean Woodcock, Aesop and then come to Lincoln by saying the following: Remember what Lincoln said: “A drop of honey catches more flies than a gallon of gall.”

  • Formulation of the Principle: ‘Begin in a friendly way.’ (Carnegie 121)

While focusing on the vertical communication, Allen adopts the following style:

  1. Quotation:

       You’ve got to think about the big things while you’re doing small things, so that all the small things go    

       in the right direction.—Alvin Toffler

2. Discussion:

Title: Enhancing “Vertical” Focus

       Horizontal focus is all you’ll need in most situations, most of the time. Sometimes, however, you may need greater rigor and focus to get a project under control, to identify a solution, or to ensure that all the right steps have been determined. This is where vertical focus comes in. Knowing how to think productively in this more “vertical” way and how to integrate the results into your personal system is the second powerful behavior set needed for knowledge work. (Allen 54)

It is noticed from the close reading of the above extracts that they possess the elements of invention, disposition, style and deliberative as outlined in classical rhetoric. In addition, some other rhetorical skills in these writings are examined with references below.

 Sound and lexis

  1. Adopting repetition of sounds in chosen lexis is another readability factor. In Khera, we find such examples as he presents Factors determining attitude by 3Es: environment, experience, education (Khera 6). Also, he coins Preparation as the mixture of purpose, principle, planning, practice, perseverance, patience, pride (Khera 49); 5Cs of success: character, commitment, conviction, courtesy, courage (Khera 14). Allen while explaining the workflow diagram says, ‘Do it, delegate it, or defer it. (Allen 35)
  2. In rhythmic writings with antithesis they make the language poetic such as ‘A Winner makes commitments; A Loser makes promises; or Winners have dreams; Losers have schemes. (Khera 23). While defining success, he writes,

To laugh often and love much;

To win the respect of intelligent persons

and the affection of children;

To earn the approval of honest critics

and endure the betrayal of false friends;(Khera 25)

His rhythmic words like ‘ability without dependability, responsibility, and flexibility is a liability’ (40) is quite appreciable. Peale too adopts this technique as he writes in the context of solving personal problems, ‘PRYERIZE, PICTURIZE, ACTUALIZE’ (Peale 60). Allen too uses such statements with multiple rhetorical value quoting Havel as he says, ‘Vision is not enough; it must be combined with venture. It is not enough to stare up the steps; we must step up the stairs.’(Allen 20)

        Emphasis of certain words in the sentences with highlighting is a way of attracting readability as Judith in his book writes, ‘Thinking the universe for what it has provided, is providing and will provide is very necessary to having your good life.(38).

Capitalization is another technique of emphasis as Allen does it often: ‘Here are three basic steps for developing a vision: 2 | Envision “WILD SUCCESS”! (Suspend “Yeah, but. . .”)’ (Allen 69); or even italicized in some places as: Don’t Judge, Challenge, Evaluate, or Criticize It’s easy for the unnatural planning model to rear its ugly head in brainstorming,…’ (Allen 73); or write within inverted commas such as: This “runway level” approach will make you “honest” about all kinds of things….(Allen 79).

Peale uses this technique too as he writes, ‘Nobody can be you as efficiently as YOU can.’ (Peale 22).

Importance on the use of appropriate content words

A close reading of the texts shows us that these writers choose to use appropriate content words such as nouns, main verbs and adjectives. This is because of the wider audience and help avoiding ambiguity or unnecessarily idiomatic interpretations. An extract from Allen’s Getting Thing Done can be taken as example,

      I think efficiency is a good thing. Maybe what you’re doing is important, interesting, or useful; or maybe it isn’t but it has to be done anyway. In the first case you want to get as much return as you can on your investment of time and energy. In the second, you want to get on to other things as fast as you can, without any nagging loose ends. (Allen xi)

Or a text from Neale’s writings can be presented as follows:

      The essence of the secret lies in a change of mental attitude. One must learn to live on a different thought basis, and even though change requires effort, it is much easier than to continue living as you are. The life of strain is difficult. (Neale 24).

What’s more, the writings are analytical and although texts such as sentences or paragraphs can be extracted from the books, still then, they bear independent meaning.

Analysis of sentence structure

  1. While outlining the principles of communication as important in discourse strategies, such writers give some tips in sentences using directive and cognitive verbs such as Carnegie says, “Forbid to use language of fixed opinion like ‘certainly’, ‘undoubtedly’, etc. instead use ‘I conceive’, ‘I apprehend’, ‘I imagine’, ‘It appears to me at present ….’, “If you want to build a positive attitude, learn the phrase, ‘do it now’ and stop the habit of procrastination.’(Carnegie 105). Khera also says using modals and conditionals in a similar context that “The saddest words in life are: ‘It might have been’; ‘I should have’; ‘I could have.’ ‘I wish I had’; ‘If only I had given a little extra.’” (Khera 12).’
  2. The use of imperatives in the books marks the emphasis of the writers on advice or suggestions. They do it with different types of imperatives such as ‘be/become’ as in ‘Principle-1: become genuinely interested in other people.’ Or ‘Principle-4: Be a good listener, encourage others to talk about themselves.’(Carnegie 35) Then, there are ‘do’ as in ‘Principle-1: Don’t criticize, condemn or complain; don’t nag, live and let live, don’t try to make your partner over, give honest appreciation, they mean so much to a woman (feminine mysteries), courtesy, don’t be marriage illiterate.’ (Carnegie 36). He quotes General Obregon’s philosophy and says, ‘Don’t be afraid of enemies who attack you. Be afraid of the friends who flatter you’. (Carnegie 40). There are direct imperatives too as in Carnegie in ‘Principle-1: Begin with praise and honest appreciation; or Call attention to people’s mistakes indirectly.’ (Carnegie 41).

    There are plenty of uses of non-contrastive ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘our’ or ‘your’ in the imperative statements implying the emphatic arguments of the authors regarding certain ideologies or principles of refining personality such as:

        ‘We cannot live our lives by emotions alone. We need to add discipline, no matter what age we are. Winning in life comes when we do not succumb to what we want to do but do what ought to be done….We all look to our parents, teachers and supervisors to teach us integrity. And many times we are disappointed.’ (Khera 79);

Or as in Allen:

      ‘When you focus on something—the vacation you’re going to take, the meeting you’re about to go into, the product you want to launch—that focus instantly creates ideas and thought patterns you wouldn’t have had otherwise. Even your physiology will respond to an image in your head as if it were reality.’ (Allen 67).

Also we find this in Carnegie:

       You never read a book on psychology, Tippy. You didn’t need to. You knew by some divine instinct that you can make more friends in two months by becoming genuinely interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you. Let me repeat that. You can make more friends in two months by becoming interested in other people than you can in two years by trying to get other people interested in you. (Carnegie 55)

General proverbial statements are the other techniques of appreciable readability adopted by them as in Khera we find such writings like ‘Freedom is not produced by a full enjoyment of what is desired but controlling desire’; or ‘Education teaches us what can we do or don’t.’(Khera 77).

There are climatic expressions as David in Chap-2, he discusses the five stages of mastering workflow: collect, process, organize, review and then do or in Chapter-3, there is focus on the five phases of project planning like brainstorming, organizing; setting up meetings, gathering information.

Use of conditionals with imperative are also a part of concrete writings as in Khera, we find such examples:


         If a child lives with criticism, he learns to condemn.

        If a child lives with praise, he learns to appreciate.

      ….If a child lives with security, he learns to have faith.

      If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, he learns to find love in the world. (Khera 75)

Peale also uses the technique as he writes about divine energy, ‘If the individual takes reasonable care of his body from the standpoint of proper diet, exercise, sleep, no physical abuse, the body will produce and maintain astonishing energy and sustain itself in good health…. If he gives similar attention to a well-balanced emotional life, energy will be conserved. (Peale 43).

Paradoxical statements are the age old stylistic technique to express ironical and truthful things intelligently. There is word rhythm too. The motivational writers to some extent use this technique too. Khera quotes Buren to say that, ‘Suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary problem.’ (Khera 28) and he himself formulates such statements like ‘Our greatest strength can become our greatest weakness too.’ (); or ‘a drop of honey catches more flies than a gallon of gall.’(Carnegie 116) or ‘All men have fears, but the brave put down their fears and go forward, sometimes to death, but always to victory” was the motto of the King’s Guard in ancient Greece. (Carnegie 150).

Metaphors are used aptly such as, ‘A peaceful concept is indeed oil on troubled thoughts (Peale 29)… Thoughts create words, for words are the vehicles of ideas. (Peale 33). Sharma’s use of symbols stands as extended metaphors in this context and his saying, ‘Self mastery is the DNA of life mastery.’ (Peale 105) is wittiest.

Q-A as a technique of discourse which is not only a conversational technique but also logical to attract the attention. Khera employs this in the following:

        Does that mean if we acquire a negative attitude, whether by design or by default, we are stuck with it? Of course not. Can we change? Yes. Is it easy? Absolutely not. How do you build and maintain a positive attitude? Become aware of the principles that build a positive attitude Desire to be positive Cultivate the discipline and dedication to practice those principles As adults, regardless of our environment, education and experience, who is responsible for our attitude? We are. We have to accept responsibility some time in our lives. We blame everyone and everything but ourselves. It is up to us to choose our attitude every morning. As adults, we need to accept responsibility for our behavior and actions. (Khera 8)

Allen too employs this for example:

But almost all projects can use some form of creative thinking from the left side of the brain, along the lines of “What’s the plan?”(75)

Next Actions

The final stage of planning comes down to decisions about the allocation and reallocation of physical resources to actually get the project moving. The question to ask here is, “What’s the next action?”….

This “runway level” approach will make you “honest” about all kinds of things: Are you really   serious about doing this? Who’s responsible? Have you thought things through enough? (76)

Reporting conversations is a precise method of presentation of a subject matter. These writers employ that as a narrative technique as for example:

        ‘So,’ I said, ‘suppose we take a piece of paper and write down the values you have left.’

‘There’s no use.’ he sighed. ‘I haven’t a single thing left. I thought I told you that.’

I said, ‘Let’s just see anyway.’ Then asked, ‘Is your wife still with you?’

‘Why, yes, of course, and she is wonderful. We have been married for thirty years. She would never

leave me no matter how bad things are.’(Peale 16)

Intelligent use of words

It is a scholarly and impressive way of establishing the logic of an idea. The motivational writers for example David Allen uses this technique to motivate the readers as he says in the chapter ‘Implementation—Whether Ail-Out or Casual—Is a Lot About “Tricks”’:

       If you’re not sure you’re committed to an all-out implementation of these methods, let me assure you that a lot of the value people get from this material is good “tricks.” Sometimes just one good trick can make it worthwhile to range through this information: I’ve had people tell me, for example, that the best thing they got from my two day seminar was advice on setting up and using a tickler file. Tricks are for the not-so-smart, not-so conscious part of us. To a great degree, the highest performing people I know are those who have installed the best tricks in their lives. I know that’s true of me. The smart part of us sets up things for us to do that the not-so-smart part responds to almost automatically, creating behavior that produces high-performance results. We trick ourselves into doing what we ought to be doing. (Allen 85-86).

 Peale while explaining how to create your own happiness writes, ‘The word fume means to boil up, to blow off, to emit vapor, to be agitated, to be distraught, to seethe.’ (93). In Chapter-11 while explaining how to use faith in healing, he writes, ‘…the word holiness derives from a word meaning wholeness and the word meditation usually used in a religious sense, closely resembles the root meaning of the world medication.’ (181).

 ‘I’ importance

‘I’ importance in narratives mean the emphasis on cognitive and consciousness elements. To some extent, it implies the importance on individuality. As a rhetorical technique, this is remarkable as Peale writes:

        I can perhaps illustrate the manner in which many youngsters acquire an inferiority complex through the use of a personal reference. As a small boy I was painfully thin. I had lots of energy was on a track team was healthy and hard as nails, but thin. I wanted to be fat. I was called ‘skinny’, but I did not want to be called ‘skinny’. I wanted to be called ‘fat’? I longed to be hard-boiled and tough and fat. did everything to get fat. I drank cod-liver-oil…. I stayed thin…. I kept on trying to get heavy until I was about thirty,…did I get heavy? I bulged at the seams. Then I became… I was so fat….(Peale 9-10).

Understatement and satire

There are narrative instances of understatement and satire too. But, the approach is smart, direct and unambiguous. Similarly, Khera passes mild satiric comments like ‘Foolish people have a strange kind of confidence which comes only with ignorance.’ (Khera 15). In a discussion about choices in life, he says, ‘Life is like a cafeteria.’(Khera 31). The use of verbiage in sayings can be noticed in their writings for example, Khera says, ‘All progress is change but all change is not progress.’ (48) Or ‘The heaviest burden in life is that at the end you have nothing to carry.’(56). He leaves a wittiest message in the book: ‘Winners do not do different things, they do it differently.’

Use of metadiscourse: motivational books vs. textbooks

It is very often noticed that the motivational books are inspirational and define the concepts precisely with a more conversational and appealing diction which are unlike the textbooks mostly introduced for classroom study purposes. The textbooks are rather based on the definition and analysis method in a sequence. These books use meta-language to define the concepts.


Proper use of rhetorical devices serves better communicative functions because of their pragmatic implications. In fact, in terms of the successful user-centred textuality, the books discussed here possess popularly acceptable themes. There is balance in the textual components like cohesion, coherence, intentionality, informativity, acceptability, and situationality. The appropriate intertextual references altogether bring about the balance of composition of the books. The writers of motivational books put efforts together to make their books fit for all types of audience. The books   maintain unity of the diction that includes subject, purpose, occasion and audience with active and accessible range of linguistic presentations. In addition, the authorial intrusion seems to be reasonable; the mode of presentation is clear and neutral and the concepts of morality and dynamic life style are inspirationally defined with appropriate contexts. The rhetoric of such books aims at a steady and positive verbal-cognitive association with the use of instrumental and persuasive languages which seems to be a strategy to ignite the readers for a better perception of their own personality and profession specifically and the world in general.


Abrams, M.H. & G.G. Harpham.  A Glossary of Literary Terms, Boston: Wadsworth  Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Crystal, David. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Print.

Allen, David.  Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-free Productivity, NY: Penguin Books, 2003.Print.

Carnegie, Dale. How to Win Friends and Influence People,  E-book          www.alt.binaries.ebook

Edwards, Will.  The 7 Keys to Success, White Dove Books, 2006.E book

Khera, Shiv. You Can Win, E-book.

Peale, N.V. The Power of Positive Thinking: A Practical Guide to Mastering the  problems of Everyday Living, The Quality Book Club. E-book.        www.self-improvement-

Sharma, R.S.  The Monk Who Sold His Ferrari: A Fable about Fulfilling Your Dreams  and Reaching Your Destiny, NY: Harper San Francisco, 1997.E-book.

Tramayne, Judith. Train Your Brain, White Dove Books. E-book.

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